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主力翻譯: Peilan, RSChiang, jbytw, Shirley Huang, ballII, 洪偉, joewang, James Huang, Iressa, 雨蒼, Ivan Fong, Anthony Liu



The Declaration on Parliamentary Openness is available in the public domain. Please attribute OpeningParliament.org as the creator of this work.

《議會開放宣言》為公眾領域著作。請標示 OpeningParliament.org 為著作人


Executive Summary / 摘要

Purpose / 目的

The Declaration on Parliamentary Openness[1] is a call to national parliaments, and sub-national and transnational legislative bodies, by civil society parliamentary monitoring organizations (PMOs) for an increased commitment to openness and to citizen engagement in parliamentary work. PMOs are increasingly recognized for the important role they play in making parliamentary information more accessible to citizens, strengthening the capacity of citizens to participate in parliamentary processes, and improving parliamentary accountability. While PMOs have a strong interest in advocating for greater access to government and parliamentary information, they also recognize the need for increased collaborative dialogue with the world’s parliaments on issues of parliamentary reform. The Declaration is intended not only as a call to action, but also as a basis for dialogue between parliaments and PMOs to advance government and parliamentary openness, and to ensure that this openness leads to greater citizen engagement, more responsive representative institutions and, ultimately, a more democratic society.

《議會公開宣言》[1] 是一個由公民社會中議會監督組織 (parliamentary monitoring organizations, PMOs) 向各國議會,與地區性及跨國性的立法機構提出的呼籲,期使這些機構承諾提高公開度及公民參與度。議會監督組織在推進議會資訊公開,提升公民參與議會工作,以及增加議會問責性方面所扮演的重要角色最近越發受到各界肯定。議會監督組織不僅致力倡議開放更多獲取政府和議會資訊的管道,同時也意識到議會改革的相關議題需要世界各地議會間更多的合作對話。需要加強與世界各國國會就相關國會改革事宜進行多方對話。本宣言不單是一個行動呼籲,也為世界各地議會與議會監督組織提供一個對話基礎,以期能增進政府與議會透明度,藉此促成更多公民參與及回應更積極的代議制度,並最終帶來更民主的社會。

[1]宣言的實踐例子和注釋,可參考: http://www.openingparliament.org/declaration.

History / 歷史

The Declaration, which draws on a variety of background documents endorsed by the international parliamentary community, was initially discussed at a conference of PMO leaders that was co-hosted by the National Democratic Institute, the Sunlight Foundation, and the Latin American Legislative Transparency Network in Washington, D.C. The conference took place from April 30 to May 2, 2012 with support from the Omidyar Network, the Open Society Institute, the National Endowment for Democracy, the World Bank Institute and the Embassy of Mexico in the United States. An updated version of the Declaration reflecting the prevailing consensus among conference participants was then reviewed at the Open Legislative Data Conference in Paris, hosted by Regards Citoyens, Centre d’études européennes de Sciences Po, and Médialab Sciences Po from July 6 to 7, 2012. The draft was made available for public comment online from June 11 to July 31, 2012. The final version of the Declaration, which resides at OpeningParliament.org was launched at the World e-Parliament Conference in Rome on the International Day of Democracy, September 15, 2012.

本宣言的擬稿由眾多被國際議會社群所認可的相關文獻編製而成,並在一個於美國華盛頓特區舉行的議會監督組織領袖會議中首次被提出討論。該次會議由美國國際民主研究院(National Democratic Institute)、陽光基金會(Sunlight Foundation)及拉丁美洲立法透明化網絡 (Latin American Legislative Transparency Network)  在於2012年4月30日至5月2日間舉辦,並得到歐米迪亞基金會(Omidyar Network)、開放社會研究所(Open Society Institute)、美國國家民主基金會(National Endowment for Democracy)、世界銀行學院(World Bank Institute)及墨西哥駐美使館所贊助。依據該次會議與會人士主要共識作出的《宣言》修正版本,隨後在2012年7月6日至7日在巴黎舉行的立法資訊開放會議(Open Legislative Data Conference)中進行檢討。該會議由法國公民監督組織(Regards Citoyens)、巴黎政治大學歐洲研究中心(Centre d’études européennes de Sciences Po)及媒體實驗室(Médialab Sciences Po)共同主辦。同時,宣言的草稿亦於2012年6月11日至7月31日期間在互聯網上發佈,讓公眾透過網絡提供意見。目前載於OpeningParliament.org網站的《宣言》最終版本,則於2012年9月15日國際民主日當天,在羅馬舉行的世界電子議會會議 (World e-Parliament Conference)上公佈。

Scope / 主要內容

Promoting a Culture of Openness: Parliamentary information belongs to the public. Parliamentary information shall be able to be reused or republished by citizens with any limited restrictions narrowly defined by law. To enable a culture of parliamentary openness, parliament must enact measures to ensure inclusive citizen participation and a free civil society, enable effective parliamentary monitoring, and vigorously protect these rights through its oversight role. Parliament shall also ensure that citizens have legal recourse to enforce their right to access parliamentary information. Parliament has an affirmative duty to promote citizen understanding of parliamentary functioning and share good practices with other parliaments to increase openness and transparency. Parliament shall work collaboratively with PMOs and citizens to ensure that parliamentary information is complete, accurate, and timely.

推廣資訊開放文化議會資訊屬於公眾。除少數由法律嚴格限定的管制外,議會資訊應容許公民反復使用或自由轉載。為了營造這種開放文化, 議會必須訂立措施,保障公民的廣泛參與權和一個自由的公民社會,令議會可被有效監察,並積極履行其監督職能,以防止上述權利不受侵犯。議會也須確保公民可以通過法律途徑,伸張他們取得議會資訊的權利。議會有責任積極地增進公民對議會運作的瞭解,並與各地議會分享良好的實踐例子,以促進公開性與透明度。議會應與議會監督組織和公民保持合作,以確保議會資訊的完整、正確與即時。

Making Parliamentary Information Transparent: Parliament shall adopt policies that ensure proactive publication of parliamentary information, and shall review these policies periodically to take advantage of evolving good practices. Parliamentary information includes information about parliament’s roles and functions, and information generated throughout the legislative process, including the text of introduced legislation and amendments, votes, the parliamentary agenda and schedule, records of plenary and committee proceedings, historical information, and all other information that forms a part of the parliamentary record, such as reports created for or by parliament. Parliament shall provide information on the management and administration of parliament, parliamentary staff, and comprehensive and detailed parliamentary budget information. Parliament shall provide information about the backgrounds, activities and affairs of members, including sufficient information for citizens to make informed judgments regarding their integrity and probity, and potential conflicts of interest.


Easing Access to Parliamentary Information: Parliament shall ensure that information is broadly accessible to all citizens on a non-discriminatory basis through multiple channels, including first-person observation, print media, radio, and live and on-demand broadcasts and streaming. Physical access to parliament shall be provided to all citizens, subject to space and safety limitations, with clearly defined and publicly available policies for ensuring access by media and observers. Parliamentary information must also be available free of charge, in multiple national and working languages, and through tools, such as plain language summaries, that help ensure that parliamentary information is understandable to a broad range of citizens.


Enabling Electronic Communication of Parliamentary Information: Parliamentary information shall be released online in open and structured formats that allow citizens to analyze and reuse this information using the full range of technology tools. Parliamentary information shall be linked to related information and be easily searchable, as well as downloadable in bulk to encourage the development of new technologies for its exploration. Parliamentary websites enable communication with citizens even in societies with limited Internet penetration, by facilitating information access to intermediaries, which can further disseminate the information to citizens. Parliamentary websites shall seek to use interactive tools to engage citizens and offer alert or mobile services. Parliament shall give preference to the use of non-proprietary formats, and free and open-source software. Parliament has a duty to ensure technological usability of parliamentary information, while guaranteeing the privacy for those accessing the information.


Preamble / 前言

WHEREAS inclusive, accountable, accessible and responsive parliaments and legislative institutions are the key to democratization because of their constitutional responsibilities to enact legislation, represent citizens and oversee executive policy implementation and performance, and reflect citizen interests;


WHEREAS parliamentary openness enables citizens to be informed about the work of parliament, empowers citizens to engage in the legislative process, allows citizens to hold parliamentarians to account and ensures that citizens’ interests are represented;


WHEREAS the rights of citizens to participate in governance and access parliamentary information are established in international human rights frameworks[2] and in international benchmarks and norms for democratic parliaments adopted by the international parliamentary community;[3] and whereas international institutions have laid a strong foundation for openness online;[4]


WHEREAS the onset of the digital era has altered fundamentally the context for public usage of parliamentary information and the expectations of citizens for good governance, and whereas emerging technology is empowering analysis and reuse of parliamentary information with enormous promise to build shared knowledge and inform representative democracy.


WHEREAS variations in traditions, experience, resources and context may influence the approach parliament takes to improving openness, they do not undermine the importance of improving parliamentary openness and transparency;


WHEREAS the need for parliamentary openness is complemented by the need for broader governmental openness and whereas many governments are collaborating with civil society through such initiatives as the Open Government Partnership to develop monitorable commitments to achieve more transparent, effective and accountable governments;


WHEREAS a growing number of civil society parliamentary monitoring and support organizations seek to play a meaningful and collaborative role in strengthening the democratic accountability of parliaments and require access to parliamentary information to play this role effectively, and whereas there are numerous precedents for strong collaboration between parliaments and parliamentary monitoring organizations (PMOs) that can inform efforts for greater openness of parliamentary information;

越來越多來自公民社會的議會監督及支持組織正在尋求如何在加強議會的的民主責任上扮演有意義及協助的角色,並要求取得議會資訊以更有效率的達成目標。議會和議公民國會監督組織(Parliamentary Monitoring Organizations,PMOs)之間的強烈合作也已經有許多先例,這些例子努力地增加議會訊息的透明度。

THEREFORE, representatives of the PMO community[5] have developed and pledge to advance the following principles of parliamentary openness.


Promoting A Culture Of Openness / 推廣開放透明的文化

1.          Recognizing Public Ownership of Parliamentary Information / 議會資訊為公民所擁有

Parliamentary information belongs to the public; citizens should be allowed to reuse and republish parliamentary information, in whole or in part. Any exceptions or restrictions to this principle shall be narrowly defined by law.


2.         Advancing a Culture of Openness through Legislation / 經由立法形成開放且進步的文化

Parliament has a duty to enact legislation, as well as internal rules of procedure and codes of conduct, that foster an enabling environment guaranteeing the public’s right to government and parliamentary information, promoting a culture of open government, providing for transparency of political finance, safeguards freedoms of expression and assembly, and ensuring engagement by civil society and citizens in the legislative process.


3.         Protecting a Culture of Openness through Oversight / 監督行政部門確保開放的公民政治

In fulfilling its oversight function, parliament shall guarantee that laws ensuring government openness are implemented effectively, that the government acts in a fully transparent manner, and that government also works to promote a culture of openness.



4.         Promoting Civic Education / 推廣公民教育

Parliament has a responsibility to actively promote civic education of the public, particularly youth, by promoting understanding of parliament’s rules and procedures, parliament’s work, and the role of parliament and its members.


5.         Engaging Citizens and Civil Society / 接觸公民與公民社會

Parliament has a duty to actively engage citizens and civil society, without discrimination, in parliamentary processes and decision-making in order to effectively represent citizen interests and to give effect to the right of citizens to petition their government.


6.         Protecting an Independent Civil Society / 確保獨立的公民社會

Parliament has a duty to support measures to ensure that civil society organizations are able to operate freely and without restriction.


7.         Enabling Effective Parliamentary Monitoring 建構有效的議會監督

Parliament shall recognize the right and duty of civil society, media, and the general public to monitor parliament and parliamentarians. Parliament shall engage in consultations with the general public and civil society organizations that monitor parliament to encourage effective monitoring and reduce barriers in accessing parliamentary information. 


8.         Sharing Good Practice / 分享優良實務

Parliament shall actively participate in international and regional exchanges of good practice with other parliaments and with civil society organizations to increase the openness and transparency of parliamentary information, improve the use of information and communication technologies, and strengthen adherence to democratic principles.


9.         Ensuring Legal Recourse / 確保法律援助

Parliament shall enact legislation to ensure that citizens have effective access to legal or judicial recourse in instances where citizens’ access to government or parliamentary information is in dispute.


10.       Disseminating Complete Information / 發佈完整資訊

Parliamentary information available to the public shall be as complete as possible, reflecting the entirety of parliamentary action, subject only to narrowly and precisely defined exceptions.


11.        Providing Timely Information 提供即時資訊

Parliamentary information shall be provided to the public in a timely manner. As a general rule, information shall be provided in real time. To the extent that doing so is impossible, parliamentary information shall be released publicly as quickly as it is available internally.


12.        Ensuring Accurate Information 確保資訊準確

Parliament shall ensure a process to retain authoritative records and guarantee that the information it releases to the public is accurate.


Making Parliamentary Information Transparent / 使議會資訊透明

13.        Adopting Policies on Parliamentary Transparency / 採納議會透明政策

Parliament shall adopt policies that ensure the proactive dissemination of parliamentary information, including policies regarding the formats in which this information will be published. Parliamentary transparency policies shall be publicly available and shall specify terms for their periodic review to take advantage of technological innovations and evolving good practices. Where parliament may not have the immediate capacity to publish comprehensive parliamentary information, parliament should develop partnerships with civil society to ensure broad public access to parliamentary information.


14.        Providing Information on Parliament’s Roles and Functions / 提供議會角色及功能資訊

Parliament shall make available information about its constitutional role, structure, functions, internal rules, administrative procedures and workflow, as well as the same information for its committees.


15.        Providing Information on Members of Parliament / 提供議員資訊

Parliament shall provide sufficient and regularly updated information for citizens to understand a member’s credentials, party affiliation, electoral mandate, roles in parliament, attendance, identities of personal staff, and any other information members wish to divulge about themselves and their credentials. Working contact information for the parliamentary and constituency offices of members shall also be available to the public.


16.        Providing Information on Parliamentary Staff and Administration / 提供議事人員及行政資訊

Parliament shall make available information about its administrative functioning and the structure of parliamentary staff that manage and administer parliamentary processes. Contact information for staff responsible for providing information to the public should be publicly available.


17.        Informing Citizens regarding the Parliamentary Agenda / 提供公民議會行事曆

Documentation relating to the scheduling of parliamentary business shall be provided to the public, including the session calendar, information regarding scheduled votes, the order of business and the schedule of committee hearings. Except in rare instances involving urgent legislation, parliament shall provide sufficient advance notice to allow the public and civil society to provide input to members regarding items under consideration.


18.        Engaging Citizens on Draft Legislation / 鼓勵公民參與法案草擬

Draft legislation shall be made public and published upon its introduction. Recognizing the need for citizens to be fully informed about and provide input into items under consideration, parliament shall seek to provide public access to preparatory analysis and background information to encourage broad understanding of policy discussions about the proposed legislation.


19.        Publishing Records of Committee Proceedings / 發佈委員議事紀錄

Reports of committee proceedings, including documents created and received, testimony of witnesses at public hearings, transcripts, and records of committee actions, shall promptly be made public.


20.       Recording Parliamentary Votes / 紀錄議會投票

To ensure members’ accountability to their constituents for their voting behavior, parliament shall minimize the use of voice voting in plenary and shall use roll call or electronic voting in most cases, maintaining and making available to the public a record of the voting behavior of individual members in plenary and in committees. Similarly, parliament shall minimize the use of proxy voting and ensure that it does not undermine norms of transparency and democratic accountability.


21.        Publishing Records of Plenary Proceedings / 發佈全體會議紀錄

Parliament shall create, maintain and publish readily accessible records of its plenary proceedings, preferably in the form of audio or video recordings, hosted online in a permanent location, as well as in the form of a written transcript or Hansard.


22.        Publishing Reports Created by or Provided to Parliament / 發佈議會製作及議會中使用之報告

All reports created by parliament or that are requested or required to be submitted to parliament, its offices, or committees, shall be made public in their entirety, except in narrowly defined circumstances identified by law.


23.        Providing Information on the Budget and Expenditures / 提供預算與支出資訊

Parliament has a responsibility to make public comprehensive, detailed, and easily understandable information about the national budget and public expenditures, including past, current, and projected revenues and expenditures. Similarly, parliament has a duty to publish information regarding the parliament’s own budget, including information about its own budget execution and bids and contracts. This information shall be made public in its entirety, using a consistent taxonomy, along with plain language summaries, explanations or reports that help promote citizen understanding.


24.       Disclosing Assets and Ensuring the Integrity of Members / 揭露成員的財產與確保誠信

Parliament shall make available sufficient information to allow citizens to make informed judgments regarding the integrity and probity of individual members, including information on members’ asset disclosures, their parliamentary expenses, and their non-parliamentary income, including interest, dividends, lease payments or other in-kind benefits.


25.        Disclosing Information on Unethical Conduct and Potential Conflicts of Interest / 揭露不當行為與利益衝突

Parliament shall enact clearly defined rules to ensure disclosure of information necessary to protect against actual or perceived conflicts of interest and ethical violations, including relevant information about members’ interactions with lobbyists and pressure groups. Parliament shall also make public information on the final results of any judicial or parliamentary investigations into charges of unethical behavior, conflicts of interest or corruption.


26.       Providing Access to Historical Information / 提供歷史資訊

Parliamentary information for prior sessions shall be digitized and made available to citizens in perpetuity for reuse free of legal restrictions or fees. To the extent a parliament cannot digitize and make available its own information, it shall work with outside organizations to facilitate public dissemination of parliamentary information without restriction. Parliament shall provide the public access to a parliamentary library in order to allow members and the public the ability to access historical parliamentary information.


Easing Access To Parliamentary Information

27.        Providing Multiple Channels for Accessing Information / 提供多種獲得資訊的管道

Parliament shall provide access to information about its work through multiple channels; including first-person observation, print media, radio and television broadcasts, and Internet and mobile device technology.


28.       Ensuring Physical Access / 確保議會對公民開放

Parliament and its plenary sessions shall be physically accessible and open to all citizens, subject only to demonstrable public safety and space limitations.


29.       Guaranteeing Access by the Media / 確保媒體採訪權

Parliament shall ensure that the media and independent observers are given full access to parliamentary proceedings; the criteria and process for providing media access shall be clearly defined and publicly available.


30.       Providing Live and On-Demand Broadcasts and Streaming / 提供及時轉播及隨選影音

Efforts shall be made to provide citizens with real-time and on-demand archival access to parliamentary proceedings through radio, television and the Internet.


31.        Facilitating Access throughout the Country / 讓全國各地都能取得資訊

To the extent possible, access to parliamentary information shall not be restricted by geographic barriers. Although the use of parliamentary websites facilitates access to parliamentary information without geographic restriction, in countries where Internet access and usage is limited, parliament shall seek other means of ensuring public access to parliamentary information throughout the country.


32.        Using Plain Language / 使用口語文字

Parliament shall ensure that legal or technical language does not serve as a barrier to citizens seeking to access parliamentary information. While recognizing the necessity of using precise language in writing laws, parliament has a duty to develop plain language summaries and similar tools to make parliamentary information readily available and understandable to members and citizens with diverse backgrounds and expertise.


33.        Using Multiple National or Working Languages / 使用多語或工作語言

Where the constitution or parliamentary rules provide for the use of multiple national or working languages in parliament, parliament shall make every reasonable effort to provide for the simultaneous interpretation of proceedings and rapid translation of the parliamentary record.


34.       Granting Free Access / 自由使用

Parliamentary information shall be available to citizens for unrestricted access, reuse and sharing free of charge.


Enabling Electronic Communication Of Parliamentary Information / 推動議會資訊之電子化通訊

35.        Providing Information in Open and Structured Formats / 以開放與結構化格式提供資訊

Parliamentary information shall be compiled and released in an open and structured format, such as structured XML, that can be read and processed by computers, so that parliamentary information can be easily reused and analyzed by citizens, civil society, the private sector and government.


36.       Ensuring Technological Usability / 確保科技可用性

Parliament shall ensure technological usability of parliamentary information by providing clear instructions for the use of any online databases or tools that enable citizens to retrieve parliamentary information from the parliamentary website. To the extent parliament provides a user interface, it shall use best practices to improve its usability.


37.        Protecting Citizen Privacy / 保護公民隱私

Parliamentary websites shall have a clear and concise privacy policy to let citizens know how their personal information is being used. Parliament shall not employ membership or registration requirements that restrict public access to information on parliamentary websites or permit the tracking of personally identifiable information without explicit consent.


38.       Using Non-Proprietary Formats and Open-Source Software / 使用非專有格式及開源軟體

Parliament shall give preference to the release of digital information in non-proprietary and open formats, and the use of free and open-source software applications.


39.       Allowing Downloadability for Reuse / 允許下載與再利用

Parliamentary information shall be easily downloadable, in bulk and in well-documented formats to allow for easy reuse of the information.


40.       Maintaining Parliamentary Websites / 維護議會網站

Even in countries with limited Internet usage, the maintenance and regular updating of a comprehensive parliamentary website is a vital aspect of parliamentary openness in the modern, interconnected world. Parliament shall ensure that parliamentary information is available in electronic format and shall regard online dissemination as an essential means of communication.



41.        Using Easy and Stable Search Mechanisms / 採用簡單穩定的搜尋機制

Parliament shall make it as easy as possible for citizens to quickly find desired parliamentary information by creating databases enabling both simple and complex searches through the use of appropriate metadata. Information shall be available in a location that remains constant over time, for instance, on a webpage with a persistent URL.


42.       Linking Related Information / 連結相關資訊

Parliament shall seek to improve the ability of citizens to find relevant parliamentary information by linking parliamentary information to other related information, for example, by linking references in a bill history to earlier versions of the legislation, to relevant committee reports, to expert testimony, to sponsored amendments and to the portions of the Hansard that contain the record of parliamentary debate on the relevant piece of legislation.


43.       Enabling Use of Alert Services / 提供訂閱通知服務

Where possible, parliament shall provide citizens the ability to subscribe to services to alert them to certain categories of parliamentary actions through the use of email, SMS text messaging, or other technologies.


44.       Facilitating Two-Way Communication / 推動雙向溝通

Parliament shall endeavor to use interactive technology tools to foster the ability of citizens to provide meaningful input on legislation and parliamentary activity and to facilitate communication with members or parliamentary staff.